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Defend yourself. Protect yourself against tracking, surveillance, and censorship. Download for Windows Signature. Download for macOS Signature. Download for Linux Signature. Download for Android. Around , Nokia understood the importance of a more consolidated approach in achieving its dream to become a global product company with a consumer focus.
This meant that every new product Nokia envisioned was to be developed by engineers that worked more closely with logistics, manufacturing, and marketing teams. Furthermore, it allowed the company to bring partners into the research and development process, which later enabled the slew of phone form factor experiments to be produced with incredible efficiency.
At the time, McGovern was one of the few people at Nokia that had valuable experience working in a multinational firm with manufacturing expertise. As a result, from to the Finnish company went from making , phones per year to around five million, and from reporting an operating loss to posting a healthy profit of FIM 3. It was also in that saw the Nokia board decide it was time to begin divesting the businesses that were not related to this new direction.
The work environment cultivated by the new CEO was very attractive despite the relatively low wages, as engineers would get regular job rotations that reduced internal political friction and allowed them to gain valuable technical skills. Ollila knew that Nokia had little room for error with its international expansion, but his willingness to take a novel and unconventional approach would soon turn the company from a small telecom company grown from the ashes of a financially troubled industrial conglomerate into one of the biggest innovators in mobile phones and telecom infrastructure.
Nokia went on to build a strong relationship with suppliers throughout the US and Europe and built several factories in China and Mexico. It had a brick shape with a short, extendable antenna on the top and was 45 mm thick, weighing grams, which at the time was considered thin and light.
It had a small monochrome LCD screen and was able to hold 99 contacts in memory, while its mAh battery would only last for 90 minutes of talk time or around 15 hours of standby time. It had a scrolling text menu, and the screen displayed battery and signal levels, a notification symbol for unread SMS messages, and more. Other notable features were the ability to display a list of 10 last dialed numbers, last 10 received calls, and the last 10 missed calls. The battery allowed between 70 to minutes of talk time and 20 to 40 hours of standby.
However, the company lost control of its supply chain that year as it quickly found it could no longer meet demand, which far exceeded the , phones a year that Ollila thought would be a realistic target back in This new system was fully operational in just six months, which gave NMP control back over its supply chain. To get an idea of the impact it had, inventory cycles were shortened from to 68 days, inventory costs per unit were reduced by 50 percent, and the main Nokia phone manufacturing plant in Salo, Finland went from taking several months to add a production line to establishing one at full capacity in less than a week.
By the end of the s, Nokia launched its first smartphone, the Nokia Communicator. However, both failed in the market due to their high price and being ahead of their time. This type of device that borrowed features that computers could do inside a portable brick, while also featuring a QWERTY keyboard was only starting to emerge, and it would take several years for them to become appealing for the average consumer. When unfolded, it would reveal a 4. The Nokia also sported a rudimentary web browser.
The company improved on this original concept with a few subsequent models, the first of which arrived in in the form of the Nokia and i. These utilized a faster AMD Elan SC CPU running at 33 MHz, weighed only half as much as the Nokia , and dealt with many of the annoyances of the original, including the need for a special adapter for both charging and connecting to a computer.
It even included an MMC slot for expandable storage. One of the reasons why Nokia was pouring so many resources into rapid iteration on data-enabled phones was that its leadership at the time realized the future potential of a pocketable device that covered both business and consumer use.
Then there was the perceived competitive threat from other companies like Apple and IBM, who had previously failed to find the right recipe but could always come up with a new and refined version. Nokia executives also caught wind that Microsoft was seeking to forge partnerships with device manufacturers and mobile carriers to bring Windows to mobile devices.
Image credit: PhoneArena. By comparison, Communicator devices were a more complex endeavor that required a much of the resources dedicated into developing and maintaining an operating system with a graphical interface, various applications, and supporting a variety of networking standards. Despite growing popular in Europe, the first Communicator phones were a niche product in the US, as Nokia failed to convince carriers to switch over to the GSM standard.
On the software side, the company quickly realized after the experience of the Nokia and that it had to switch from the resource-hungry GEOS to a more efficient mobile operating system. That OS was EPOC, a bit operating system developed by a company based in UK called Psion, and an ambitious project that would form the basis for something much bigger in the coming years. Ericsson and Motorola were similarly concerned of the potential impact on their businesses, so together with Nokia they created a joint venture called Symbian to develop an open mobile operating system that would provide equal opportunity for every player in the phone space.
The idea behind the Symbian operating system was simple — to create a microkernel and its associated libraries and a separate user interface that would be easy to modify to suit competing visions for what a smartphone can do and how that functionality should look like. Companies would pay the same licensing fee to use Symbian OS, ensuring no single entity had complete control over the operating system, and they would be allowed to develop proprietary interfaces on top of it.
Developers would have an easy way to tap into the potential of the Symbian platform with greater ease without having to spend too many resources to support phones from different manufacturers — at least in theory. One milestone was Nokia bundle with Concord Eye digital camera. Some journalists used that in sport events since it was the fastest way to get news pictures to the newspapers. In , Nokia launched the third generation Communicator phone also known as the Communicator , running Symbian version 6, building on the foundations of EPOC version 5.
The Communicator hardware was the normal evolution of the series, with a color internal screen with a resolution of by pixels. When folded, it looked like a normal brick phone with a tiny monochrome screen 80 by 48 pixels and a fold-out antenna. Nokia improved on the design Nokia with subsequent models, starting with the i in which featured 40 MB of internal storage, support for video streaming, and a more reliable, LED-backlit LCD panel. This model was followed by the Nokia which offered a similar set of features in an even smaller and lighter design weighing grams.
Meanwhile, on the mainstream side, Nokia released some of the most iconic feature phone designs in history between and The Nokia was the first phone to offer replaceable faceplates and also among the first to bundle the game Snake. This phone was succeeded by the Nokia The more compact phone had great battery life, it came in several bright colors and could be easily customized with a myriad of phone covers and classic ringtones, it was able to survive several drops to the pavement, and we can only imagine how many human lifetimes were wasted playing Snake on it.
The Nokia that followed it sold an additional million using the same recipe of simplicity and durability, with a friendly design that was meant to appeal more to a general consumer audience as opposed to the bland business-oriented phones of the 90s. Also featured in several movies, the could store up to names and came with an infrared port for communicating with a compatible PC or a printer.
The Nokia was a popular feature phone for many years to come among users who desired a small phone with a long battery life and the absence of modern wireless connectivity that could be more easily tracked. In the subsequent years he established a dedicated design center in Los Angeles, California, followed by two more in England and Finland.
These were supplanted by several remote teams in Japan, China, Germany, and Denmark. In other words, Nuovo saw an opportunity in using the time between mobile chipset life cycles to get creative about the overall presentation and feel of Nokia phones. At first, this was a source of tension between designers and engineers at Nokia, and it made the phone wider and bulkier at a time when the industry was pushing in the opposite direction with every new design.
However, there were implications of this design choice that were positive — the wider chassis meant the phone could have a wider screen, the shorter body meant it was more pocketable than other phones, and the removable keyboard and back covers led to the blossoming of a new market for Nokia phone accessories. The Nokia also established the idea that phones could double as entertainment devices to pass the time, thanks in no small part to a simple and addictive game called Snake.
This, coupled with the infinitely customizable phone covers made the Nokia stand out and earn a lot of consumer mindshare. It also helped greatly that Nokia was busy staying on top of tech innovations around the GSM standard. In Europe, people were more reliant on pay-as-you-go mobile plans, which led to a habit of saving money using text messages when a phone call could be avoided.
Nokia Mobile Phones knew it had all the right ingredients within its organization to carve itself a path to dominance in the phone industry, and was eager to execute on its vision of what a smartphone should be like, since NMP executives were convinced this would be the next big thing in tech. The period between and gave way to numerous Nokia phones, where designers and engineers worked together to enable various forms and feature sets that would cater to almost any taste, sometimes going well into the unconventional.
At the same time, NMP was looking into how it could leverage alliances with other organizations to infuse new devices with useful services. Before long, however, NMP executives realized these efforts were not a sound strategy as many of these alliances were open platforms where competitors would also be able to draw value. They would soon be proven wrong with the arrival of the Nokia , which offered a built-in VGA camera at a time when rivals only offered this feature as an add-on that was cumbersome to use.
The screen was 2. However, a bigger defect was the limited 4 MB of internal storage that was not expandable in any form. It had Bluetooth connectivity, and a sliding keypad design that allowed it to be compact enough to easily fit in your pocket. It was also able to take advantage of Multimedia Messaging MMS , meaning you could send pictures to someone else with the same ease of sending an SMS text message.
But more importantly, the set the standard for how a camera phone should be designed, and paved the way for several bold designs that would propel the company to new financial heights. This new phone had nearly identical specifications but sported a storage expansion slot and traded the sliding keypad design for an unusual, circular keypad.
The circular keypad was more of a conversation starter than an efficient way to dial or write SMS messages, and small things like a menu to switch between open applications as well as a feature-rich calendar contributed to a good overall user experience. It also had a built-in email client, which made it appealing to businesses. Nokia iterated on this design until , but the most popular of the series was the , which was more compact while retaining virtually the same feature set as its predecessors.
In , Nokia launched the N-Gage, a hybrid between a handheld console and a phone designed to appeal to the gaming crowd. This was a time when most people did not typically associate a phone with entertainment, and Nintendo was conquering the hearts of millennial kids with the iconic Game Boy Advance handheld. It had online multiplayer games, and Nokia actually positioned this device as a competitor to the Game Boy Advance, but it had few very important design flaws. These issues were largely fixed in the N-Gage QD that was introduced in , but by that time the novelty had worn off.
Even as retailers started dropping the N-Gage from their stores, Nokia kept pushing it until and published the last game for it in This was a hard lesson for Nokia. This time, however, the phone in question was intended as more of a fashion statement that would last for a short while, only to be quickly replaced by a novel design that would theoretically force consumers to upgrade their phones more frequently.
Battery life was not something to write home about, and despite being offered for free as part of some mobile plans it never managed to become more than a fashion statement for relatively few consumers. Another notable Nokia phone that landed on the market in was the Nokia , a.
Sliding the phone upwards revealed a VGA camera on the back, and holding this phone during calls was much easier thanks to its unique shape. That latter part is important, as Nokia had changed its focus from trying to be the first mover to scaling up its successful mobile phone business as fast as possible. In other words, Nokia would wait until new hardware components became cheaper to buy in large quantities and flood the market with a variety of designs that were bold on the exterior but had rather boring or slightly outdated internals.
In , Nokia scrapped the Club Nokia strategy and told carriers it would no longer develop new multimedia services. In doing so, the company would reignite its partnership with mobile carriers, and even decided to work with them on making custom co-branded phones that would cater to their specific needs.
For one, the US market was mostly consolidated among a few carriers, and they all wanted to sell phones locked to their own networks. Despite these misfires, Nokia continued to focus on new phone form factors in One of the more notable models was the Nokia , a widescreen smartphone and the first Nokia phone to sport a touchscreen.
It had a large 3. It opened up just like a clamshell phone, but it also allowed you to rotate the display portion in ways that effectively turned it into a camcorder with a 2-megapixel sensor and dedicated record button. The camera used Carl Zeiss Tessar lenses, as Nokia believed optics played a greater role in producing quality images than the resolution of the sensor.
Viewing the resulting images on the display was also a satisfying experience, as it featured a pixel density of almost pixels per inch. This phone sported a rugged, stainless steel construction, and had a much more spacious internal storage — a 4 GB Toshiba miniature HDD for the first revision, and an 8 GB drive in a latter revision.
There were dedicated media playback buttons on the front, a lock button to prevent accidental key button presses while listening to music, and a standard 3. Nokia also added support for Wi-Fi in the N The company had recently introduced the Nokia Podcasting app, which allowed you to browse, subscribe to, and download podcasts without the need to connect the device to a PC.
Then there was the mobile web browser that offered a polarizing experience, since it would load full desktop pages that were often difficult to navigate on a tiny display. It also cost the same as the N90, making it an expensive proposition. Nevertheless, Nokia was proud of its N-series phones.
Sliding the front portion up revealed a keypad, while sliding it down revealed a set of media playback buttons that were designed to be easily accessible when you held the device in landscape mode. It had a 5-megapixel rear shooter and a front camera with a relatively modest resolution of by pixels for video calls. You could even tether the N95 to a PC to get Internet access through your cellular network.
The integrated GPS along with a new Maps app made navigation easy, with turn-by-turn voice instructions, route planning, and more. There was also a two-stage shutter button that made taking pictures fun and easy. To understand just how much focus Nokia had put into making this device the Swiss Army knife for urban dwellers, you had to look at what came in the box with the N The N95 also supported DLNA, and was able to act as a media server over Wi-Fi, letting you share photos, music, and video with other devices in the same network.
Battery life was worse when compared to less feature-packed phones of the era, and depending on usage patterns could last one or two days. Still, these did little to challenge the N95 in the short term, and it sold very well along with the rest of the N-series family.
According to Nokia, the N95 sold 7 million units by the end of , and 12 million until it was discontinued in This model holds a special place in the hearts of Nokia fans. As with all classic Nokia phone revival projects, this would have seen the N95 spirit being materialized in a modern form factor — a glass and metal sandwich. Sliding the screen to the left would have revealed a speaker array and a dual selfie camera hidden underneath, along with an LED flash.
The back of the N95 revival prototype has a fingerprint sensor and a triple camera array, but the protective ring around the camera module doubles as a kickstand that resembles one of the most popular accessories people buy for their phones today. A Corporate Catastrophe While was a high point for Nokia, with the company shipping almost half of all phones worldwide that year, this was also the beginning of its decline in the mobile space.
This was supposed to make Nokia more agile, but instead resulted in the departure of key people and fierce competition among executives from the newly-defined business units for resources. The resulting chaos would become apparent much later, with Nokia selling its billionth phone in and capturing 50 percent global market share by Sari Baldauf quickly followed suit, as she thought it was time to move on after her year tenure at the company. Then news broke that J.
Internally, Nokia lost coordination between its business units, which resulted in a slew of products being developed in a chaotic fashion, with conflicting requirements that created software fragmentation that would become harder to manage with each passing year. This further exacerbated the software problem by shifting even more focus on the hardware side and cutting down on software features to meet strict release deadlines. A year later, he announced the company would go through yet another reorganization that aimed to align the business units with a core vision around more tightly-integrated phones, software, and services.
But the mobile world was about to take a major turn and Nokia was falling behind. The first iPhone introduced at Macworld in set a new current in motion, despite obvious limitations such as a lack of GPS and 3G connectivity, or its inability to record video. In May , Nokia introduced the E71, a business-oriented phone that sold well because of its email, calendar, and messaging capabilities, slim design, and good battery life.
Its design alluded to the Communicator series, as this was a chunky device with a large, 3. Nokia insisted on using a resistive touchscreen that required you to apply pressure with a finger or stylus, offering a comparatively worse experience against devices with a capacitive touchscreen.
Sliding the screen up when holding the N97 in landscape mode revealed a full QWERTY keyboard which tilted the screen to a degree angle, but the mechanism was a bit uncomfortable to use as it required some force, and typing was hardly a pleasant experience. Installing apps was only possible to the root partition, which only had 50 MB of free space.
This was in spite of the internal memory being a whopping 32 GB, but that was only reserved for storing media files. The rear and front cameras were pretty much unchanged from the N95, and the battery life was decent thanks to the 1, mAh, user-replaceable battery. As noted by reviewers at the time, there was also a lot to like about this device. The screen was readable in most light conditions, the hinge was sturdy, and the 32 GB of flash memory was ample storage for media files.
The home screen supported live widgets, and you could customize the layout to your liking. The web browser supported kinetic scrolling, the maps experience was great, and the included application bundle had almost any app you could possibly need. If not, there was always the Ovi Store. It was clear at this point that Nokia had to leave Symbian behind as it was lagging behind in the smartphone market. The project was led by Ari Jaaksi and was initially intended for a touchscreen smartphone, but the whole endeavor was frowned upon internally, and suffered a great deal of pushback once it became clear that this new operating system was better than Symbian.
One of the main reasons for that was that some executives were reluctant to support projects initiated by Vanjoki, and another was that migrating from Symbian to Maemo would have thrown many users and developers under the bus in the process. Later that year, Nokia launched the N Internet Tablet with hardware very similar to that of N-series phones.
It was seen as a mildly interesting device, but in the eyes of reviewers and potential customers it looked like little more than a larger Nokia phone. The 4. The Opera web browser was easy to use, as was the included mail client. Storage space on the N was only 4 GB, but you could easily expand it via not one, but two full-size SD card slots. Battery life was modest, but it could last up to three hours when web browsing.
This effort failed as the two groups developed incompatible Qt tools. The reorganization that started in January would further complicate matters, as the Maemo team was absorbed into Symbian as part of the new Devices and Services group. The relatively small and agile Maemo team ballooned to over 1, engineers and effectively lost its ability to grow independently. This would allow the former to compete against Arm and Qualcomm in the mobile space, while Nokia saw it as an opportunity to evolve Maemo into a better OS.
The two companies announced the move at the Mobile World Congress in , and the MeeGo operating system was born. Unfortunately for both, Nokia and Intel, the architecture difference of the two operating systems made the merging process a monumental effort that led to numerous delays at a time when both companies needed to move fast.
And while Intel had been busy pushing its own WiMAX wireless broadband tech, it only managed to burn a lot of cash in the process. For the MeeGo collaboration, this translated into even more delays while LTE support was being developed. That said, the Finnish company was still the second largest smartphone vendor in the world, but this was only the beginning of its decline.
Furthermore, Nokia had a strong fanbase and owned a strong portfolio of intellectual property, but that year the company realized this was no longer enough. There was a ton of internal debate over how to pivot from this situation, and of course, one of the proposals was a move to Android.
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